We dropped the observations of the analysis if there was no option for a plea. These include 141 Palestinians from the West Bank who have been accused exclusively of being in Israel without authorization, a crime for which there is never a plea. Even if these cases were included, they would be removed from the model, as they perfectly predict selection in trial and conviction. There were 12 other cases where there was never a hearing, which also indicates that there was no possibility of plea. In the other five cases, there was no evidence of oral arguments. The volume of the net sample according to the dementor of these cases is 1854. Redlich AD, Bushway SD, Norris RJ (2016) Decision plea by lawyers and judges. J Exp Criminol 12:25 Another argument against pleadings is that it cannot really reduce the cost of managing justice. For example, if a prosecutor has only a 25% chance of winning his case and sending an accused to prison for 10 years, he can enter into a plea agreement for a one-year sentence. But if oral arguments are not available, a prosecutor may drop the case.  A plea is an agreement between the prosecutor and the accused in a criminal proceeding that denies the need for a trial. Both parties are generally compromises on a lesser charge or reduced sentence in exchange for an admission of guilt or an argument of opposition.
However, before the agreement can be reached, a judge must verify and approve it. The prosecutor must submit to the judge all the conditions of the agreement, including the conditions that must be met in the future. More information on the disadvantages of the advocacy system can be found in FRONTLINE`s interviews with law professors Albert Alschuler and John Langbein, as well as in the “Readings” section of this page. Agency problems can arise in oral arguments, because although the prosecutor represents the people and the defence counsel represents the accused, the objectives of these officers may not match those of their sponsors. For example, prosecutors and defence counsel may try to maintain good relationships with each other, creating a potential conflict with the parties they represent. A defence lawyer may receive a flat fee to represent a client, or may not receive additional money to open a case in court, prompting defence counsel to settle a case in order to increase profits or avoid a financial loss.